A Google Analytics Individual Qualification is the official name for Google Analytics certification for individuals. You need to pass a timed-test administered by Google that will test your technical knowledge and some strategic thinking skills. The exam consists of 70 questions that you must pass within 90-minutes, and costs $50. Upon passing, you get a nifty certificate like this one that is valid for 18 months until you need to take it again.
The test can be tricky, because it is multiple choice, but the answers can seem very ambiguous, especially when there are five possible choices and you need to pick all that apply, which means you have as many as 24 potential options for each of those questions.